The statement also congratulated the United States on the successful outcome of the Nuclear Security Summit and promised the support of ASEAN countries to work towards preventing nuclear terrorism. It also encouraged both parties to implement the Joint Statement of 19 September and to resume the Six Party Talks and the implementation of relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions. Among other subjects, the conference debated and adopted resolutions regarding drugs trafficking, terrorism, arms smuggling and human trafficking.
They also encouraged early resumption of the Six-Party Talks and the possible use of the ARF as a regional security forum including all participants to the Six-Party Talks.
ASEAN: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations
On 7 January, Dr. Ong Keng Yong. Contracting Parties agree not to participate in any activity that constitutes a threat to the political and economic stability, sovereignty, or territorial integrity of another Contracting Party. On January, the 12 th ASEAN Summit, postponed due to Typhoon Seniang, convened amid controversy regarding corruption and the overpricing of lamps used to light the routes to and among summit venues. ACCT contains provisions intended to ease prosecution and extradition of terrorism suspects.
At the 2 nd East Asian Summit, members signed the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security and agreement which sets nonbinding targets for methods to achieve "reliable, adequate and affordable" energy into the future and to develop alternative sources of energy such as biofuels. The EAS also attempted to improve relations with China through the signing of an agreement on the trade of services. He also stressed the importance of arriving at a peaceful resolution of the problem through negotiations and expressed optimism about the role that ASEAN could play as an intermediary—helping to address both humanitarian, economic and security concerns in the region.
The Ministers called upon the NWS to ratify the protocols to the treaty and for the accession of Israel, India and Pakistan to the treaty. The ministers also discussed their intentions to strengthen the regions relationship with the IAEA and capacity to implement safeguards. The Plan is intended to increase regional coordination in opposition to nuclear weapons and deepen regional participation in the relevant international agreements.
In addition, the states agreed to consider accession to other relevant instruments such as the CTBT and the counter-terrorism conventions related to nuclear weapons. The potential increase in the use of nuclear energy was discussed in this regard. They emphasized the need for denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and called upon concerned parties to utilize the upcoming ASEAN Regional Forum as an opportunity to resume the Six-Party Talks towards a peaceful resolution of the nuclear issue.
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Timor Leste also expressed an interest in acceding to the TAC. Leaders welcomed the 4 th and 5 th rounds of the Six-Party Talks held in July and November in Beijing, and called on all concerned parties to exert their utmost effort toward the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. They strongly condemned terrorism and reiterated the need to intensify their efforts to eliminate the root causes of terrorism at the bilateral, regional, and multilateral levels. Leaders also recognized the role of inter-faith dialogue in fighting the spread of terrorism and promoting understanding.
It was agreed that the East Asia summit would be held annually. Efforts to combat terrorism and address proliferation issues remained crucial in In addition, they discussed methods to promote effective legal cooperation and to strengthen exchange of intelligence and information in combating transnational crimes. Within a broad discussion of terrorism, the Ministers specifically noted the connection between international terrorism and the movement of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons materials and the need for cooperation in preventing this, and agreed on several recommendations regarding how to strengthen transnational crime prevention.
It stresses that to be effective and operational, nuclear weapon states must accede to the Protocol to the Treaty and urges them to do so as soon as possible. Furthermore, it notes that ASEAN has been holding consultations with the five nuclear weapon states toward this end, but that only China has, thus far, reached an agreement with ASEAN regarding the protocol.
The Ministers also addressed the issue of transnational crime and commended the Memorandum of Understanding between ASEAN and China regarding non-traditional security issues, emphasizing the need for cooperation in fighting terrorism, particularly within the context of the ASEAN-US Counterterrorism Work Plan and other related agreements.
The Role of East Asian Regional Organizations in Regional Governance: Constraints and Contributions
Specific regional concerns addressed by the Ministers included the situations in Iraq, the Middle East and on the Korean Peninsula. Hassan Wirajuda issued a statement noting that the meeting focused on various regional issues, with special emphasis placed on developments in Korea.
Japan had announced its intent to do so in December of They endorsed the Plan of Action of the ASEAN Security Community, a community established to enhance ASEAN's capacity through regional instruments and mechanisms in establishing regional norms and enhancing conflict prevention, resolution, and peace-building in the region. Leaders agreed on the urgent need to sustain cooperative activities in counter-terrorism. The establishment of a network of law enforcement agencies among ASEAN member countries was proposed. They also reaffirmed the role of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation TAC in maintaining peace and security in the region.
Filipino Diplomat Rodolfo C. Severino, Jr. The Foreign Ministers expressed their continued concern over the evolving situation in the Peninsula that could lead to a serious threat to peace, security, and stability in the whole Asia-Pacific region.
Thailand and ASEAN
They reiterated that the ARF remains an important forum for facilitating dialogue with the concerned parties about a lasting and durable solution, and urged its Chairman to continue his concerted efforts in this regard. In addition, the Ministers also agreed to cooperate in the global effort to fight terrorism through international conventions as well as through law enforcement, defense, intelligence, immigration and customs, and financial systems. The Community should also strengthen national and regional capacities to counter terrorism and other trans-national crimes, and ensure that the Southeast Asian region remains free of all weapons of mass destruction.
They encouraged China to maintain its constructive role in the search for a political solution to the problem. They expressed their hope that the next talk would be held soon to maintain the momentum for dialogue, and that the ARF could be utilized as a forum to discuss this particular issue.
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They noted the importance of this Treaty as a contribution to strategic balance, world peace, and long-term international security. They further called for the NWS to continue dialogue to look for new ideas and approaches to address the issue of nuclear disarmament. The Ministers also noted with satisfaction the progress in the implementation of the overlapping confidence building measures CBMs and preventive diplomacy PD.
South East Asia
The WHO headquarters and its regional offices urged their member states to adopt international health models that implied a degree of specialisation, well-structured and organised services, and technically qualified staff — elements that were clearly unavailable or not easily attainable in some countries and non-autonomous territories according to the UN designation , such as Portuguese India.
In addition, SEARO increasingly stressed the importance of integrating specialised medical care and control programmes into the general health services. On the other hand, although the WHO and UNICEF technical assistance programmes might help overcome the supposed deficiencies, achieving that kind of organisational level was not regarded as a priority across the board within either colonial or new national governments.
For instance, governments within the sphere of operations of the regional offices were expected to provide support to WHO staff working on internationally assisted projects in each country. They were also supposed to continue funding the projects supported by the WHO after the departure of its technical specialists.
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However, this did not always happen, and the decline of projects implemented with international assistance in the South East Asia region after the international specialists and technicians withdrew was discussed at a number of SEARO meetings. The brigades responsible for malaria and filariasis — two diseases designated as priorities within the communicable disease control strategy recommended by both the WHO and SEARO — were part of government-run campaigns and had no support from the regional office.
Despite operating solely on local financial resources, the control of some communicable diseases was the one area in which Portuguese India stood out. At the height of the tensions between Portugal and India, in the late s, the image of a disease invasion seemed to herald other forthcoming events.
By talking up the successes of efforts to control some communicable diseases, Lorindo dos Santos Garcia, the Director of the Goa Health Services, vented his patriotic grievances. Judging from his words, if anything he expected to reinforce that legitimacy. However, his praise was fundamentally directed at the Health Services and its doctors:. This is due to the silent, permanent and humble, but worthy work of a group of public employees — the Health Officers — and, as their accidental commander, I am very proud.
We owe the well-being, security and sanitary peace that we enjoy to them.
So commendable and surprising has their efficiency been that the World Organization [ sic ], based in New Delhi, returned the statistical map to us, calling our attention to it and asking whether there had been some mistake, since it showed only one case of smallpox and none of cholera, plague or typhus. I pleasantly replied that the map was correct; and would also have gladly added that the closure of the borders with the Indian Union had protected us from a more substantial importation.
We benefit from an enviable calm and consider our India an island of thriving freshness in this feverish sea of typhus, cholera, fevers and smallpox that surrounds us. In spite of everything, we are not satisfied; it is necessary to do more and better. Garcia summarised the tense intersections between national, regional and international in the management and delivery of health in Goa. His discourse illustrates how international health goals, programmes, ways of doing things and assessment mechanisms were locally adjusted and invested with varied uses and meanings.
The conflict with India permeated every instance of Portuguese official discourse and informed government decisions. That such successes had been attained despite the lack of any technical support from SEARO reinforced the sense of nationalist self-sufficiency. These set the main goals of the Portuguese economic programme and were designed for five-year periods. The official reports for Portuguese India do not specify the amount of money spent separately on health and on education in and , because both areas came under the same administrative directorate.
This extraordinary increase was mainly due to the building and equipping of hospitals that began in Each improvement was enumerated, and the involvement of the specialists who had studied with a WHO grant was highlighted, as were the projects that received SEARO support.